“The high mobility of armed groups and terrorists but also economic migrants and refugees, often through channels operated by organized criminal networks and other local players across uncontrolled borders only enhances risks of furthering instability and insecurity in Libya and the region,” he said.
Kubis said the U.N. mission in Libya, known as UNSMIL, reported “the continuing presence of foreign elements, mercenaries and assets, thus entrenching the division of Libya.”
Libya has been wracked by chaos since a NATO-backed uprising toppled longtime dictator Moammar Gadhafi in 2011 and split the oil-rich North African country between a U.N.-supported government in the capital, Tripoli, and rival authorities based in the country’s east, each backed by armed groups and foreign governments.
In April 2019, east-based commander Khalifa Hifter and his forces, backed by Egypt and the United Arab Emirates, launched an offensive to try and capture Tripoli. His 14-month-long campaign collapsed after Turkey stepped up its military support of the U.N.-backed government with hundreds of troops and thousands of Syrian mercenaries.
An October cease-fire led to the formation of a joint interim government, which took power in March, and is tasked with bringing together the divided country and steering it through presidential and parliamentary elections on Dec. 24.
As for the U.N. arms embargo against Libya, which U.N. experts reported recently has been continuously violated, Kubis said the U.N. mission continues to receive reports of cargoes of arms and military supplies arriving at military bases in the west, east and south.
UNSMIL also continues to receive reports of fortifications and defensive positions being set up along the Sirte-Jufra axis as well as air force training activities, he said.
“Further delays in reopening the road work against efforts to build a trust between the two sides and could undermine efforts to advance the implementation of the cease-fire agreement, to advance the political transition,” he warned.
The October cease-fire that called for mercenaries and foreign fighters to leave in 90 days continues to hold, Kubis said, but failure to get them to leave could affect Libya’s political transition and the December elections.
“It is therefore critical to plan and ensure an orderly departure of foreign
fighters, mercenaries, and armed groups together with their disarmament, demobilization and reintegration in the countries of origin,” he said.
The U.N. estimated in December that there were at least 20,000 foreign fighters and mercenaries in Libya, including Syrians, Russians, Sudanese and Chadians. But diplomats said speakers at an informal council meeting in late April said there were more than 20,000, including 13,000 Syrians and 11,000 Sudanese.